ASPIRE Researchers Detail Economic & GHG Benefits of EV Charging Systems in Nature Publication  

County level results are presented for the change in total cost of ownership due to the transition from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to EVs (ac) as a percentage and (df) in billions (B) of 2022 United States Dollars (USD). Each map corresponds to EVs charged via (ad) Direct Current Fast Charging (DCFC), (be) Battery Swapping (BSS), and (cf) Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (DWPT). The baseline scenarios are shown in this figure with all scenarios shown in the repository. Source data are provided as a Source data file and base map layer is available from OpenStreetMap (

(Fort Collins, CO) — On June 1, a comprehensive study by ASPIRE researchers analyzing the total cost of ownership (TCO) and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electric vehicles (EVs) using Direct Current Fast Charging (DCFC), Battery Swapping Stations (BSS), and Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (DWPT) was published in Nature Communications. The study — by ASPIRE’s Colorado State University team: Noah Horesh, David Trinko, and Jason Quinn — has revealed significant findings that could shape the future of EV infrastructure and policy decisions in the U.S.  

“We found that DC fast charging, battery swapping, and dynamic wireless power transfer each perform best in different locations when considering cost and greenhouse gas intensity. For instance, our baseline scenario predicts that electric vehicles charged using dynamic wireless power transfer can reduce the total cost of ownership in Utah. This will be an important consideration for planning and investment policies like ASPIRE is analyzing in the Utah Intelligent Electrified Transportation Action Plan. It’s important to carefully consider that the costs and performance of different types of charging systems are not equitably distributed across various vehicle categories and locations,” Horesh said.  

Key Findings:

  • Significant Cost Savings and Emissions Reductions:
    Transitioning from internal combustion engine (ICEs) vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) could lead to a 22% reduction in on-road transportation costs and a 53% reduction in GHG emissions from 2031 to 2050. The study highlights the significant potential of EVs to contribute to climate goals, although the TCO of EVs is generally lower for cars and light-duty trucks compared to medium and heavy-duty vehicles.  

  • Impact of Local Factors:
    Economic and environmental benefits of EV adoption are heavily influenced by local factors such as fuel prices, electricity prices, grid mix, adoption rates, and traffic volumes. The findings underscore the importance of regional planning and tailored policymaking to optimize the deployment of EV infrastructure.  

  • Technological Challenges and Benefits:  
    • DCFC offers scalability but imposes high power loads on the electrical grid.  
    • BSS can reduce vehicle dwell time but requires battery standardization and faces societal acceptance challenges.  
    • DWPT enables continuous charging and reduces battery size and costs but entails high capital costs for widescale adoption. ASPIRE is leading two of the largest pilots to deploy the technology in Indiana and Florida, with construction for a third in Utah starting this fall.  

  • Environmental & Economic Implications:
    The study reveals substantial variability in TCO and GHG-intensity benefits of EV adoption, driven by infrastructure utilization and capital cost assumptions. DWPT shows potential for significant TCO reduction with high infrastructure utilization, while BSS has minimal price variability but high capital costs.  

  • Policy Recommendations:
    The research emphasizes the need for careful technology selection and innovation in infrastructure to maximize economic and environmental benefits. Strategic deployment of BSS in high-demand areas and optimizing DWPT utilization could drive cost reductions and enhance adoption.  

This study provides a detailed look at the future of EV infrastructure, emphasizing the importance of technological advancements, strategic deployments, and informed policymaking. By leveraging the strengths of each charging system and addressing their respective challenges, the US can achieve significant economic and environmental benefits. The full analysis can be read here.  


Noah Horesh
Research Scientist — Electrified Transportation,
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Colorado State University

Jason Quinn
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Colorado State University


Kat Webb
Content Director,
Marketing & Communications